State Bar Discipline from A to Z

Welcome to the California State Bar Discipline System

Prepared by Fishkin & Slatter LLP
Revised January 2, 2018

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
II. How Complaints Are Born
III. Pro Per or Counsel?
IV. The Low Grade Inquiry
V. A Full Blown Investigation
VI. Prefiling Negotiations
VII. Formal Prosecution in the State Bar Court
VIII. Appeal to the State Bar Review Department
IX. Effectuation to the Supreme Court
X. Levels of Discipline
XI. It Isn't Over Until the Federal Lady Sings
XII. Drugs, Alcohol, and Mental Health Problems
XIII. Criminal Prosecution Can Result in State Bar Discipline
XIV. Conclusion


You've read the State Bar discipline column every month since you became an attorney, and you don't want to see your name there. The purpose of this article is to explain, in detail, how the California State Bar opens and investigates, closes or prosecutes, accusations of unethical attorney conduct. (Back to Top)


The typical State Bar investigation begins with a complaint from a disgruntled client. The proactive attorney does not wait for the complaint letter. They consult us when they first suspect that a problem could occur, or perhaps when trouble first appears on the horizon. Our advice always has one eye on the State Bar investigation that might occur if the problem blows up.

Other cases begin with a complaint by opposing counsel or party. Sometimes a judge will complain. Investigations begin when you comply with your statutory duty to self-report; other investigations begin when one of your cases is reversed on appeal due to attorney conduct. When certain non-discovery sanctions occur, if a trust account check bounces, or you get held in contempt -- any of these can generate an investigation. After a court opinion is issued or a news article is published, the State Bar may initiate a case independently.

Complaints are screened, albeit quickly and on the surface. Some cases never open. Thus we typically advise you not to send an explanation unless the State Bar asks for one. The State Bar replies to the complainant that no disciplinary issues are implicated and you never have to explain yourself. Some cases involve client file issues. Read the letter; it may ask for nothing more than a confirmation you have returned the client file. The foregoing are two examples of how attorneys can bring fire in on their own position - you shoot off a reply before the State Bar asks for one, and a non-case morphs into an investigation based on something you wrote.

State Bar letters may be sent to you by U.S. Mail or e-mail. Be sure that the e-mail address that you have lodged with the State Bar is regularly monitored.

Cases that open are classified as an "inquiry," an "investigation," a "reportable action," or a "conviction referral." We begin by studying the letter from the State Bar. We often garner information from the variations in the standard macro. (Back to Top)


Remember the ancient adage about lawyer self-representation? Generally, attorneys make poor advocates for themselves. First of all, you’re too close to most problems. Second, you may not see the State Bar issue. Third, people don't get jobs at the State Bar to help attorneys.They are adversarial from the beginning.

If you don’t know the difference between civil and disciplinary issues; if you don't know the distinction between an "inquiry" and an "investigation," you may spend a lot time missing the issue. The great outcome you achieved for you client may be irrelevant to the ethics issue. You may respond in a way that invites closer scrutiny. If you don't know about the State Bar Court Reporter, the Compendium, COPRAC opinions - you are not prepared to deal with the disciplinary issues in your response.

A very common problem for attorneys who represent themselves is the problem of over explanation. That is, the State Bar asks you discrete questions and you come back and give them so much information it opens up new areas of inquiry for them. Another area in which attorneys do not tend to represent themselves well is when the investigation turns up rather minor grade ethics offenses. The State Bar system is often amenable to closing down cases in which the offense is technical, or when the offense is minor-grade and done in the heat of litigation. There is a certain amount of finesse required in these situations, as well as the ability to see the problem in perspective. When appealing to prosecutorial discretion, it helps to know how your situation compares to others who have been in your place.

Your personal stake may lead you to be more argumentative than is prudent, or unable to see issues that are plain to others whose egos are not involved. The stonewall approach, typical in criminal defense, generally backfires in this forum. The failure to assert attorney client privilege in the face of a third-party complaint is another amateur error.

When you represent yourself, you are like every injured person who tried to deal pro per with an insurance adjuster. You're expecting the same fair treatment that a suspected criminal wants when talking to the police. You are being evaluated by jaded personnel whose managers are often more concerned with speed than accuracy.

"People do not become State Bar prosecutors to help attorneys." - Jerome Fishkin

Prosecutors represent the State Bar. They are opposing counsel in your case and you are a party defendant. The Discipline System is an adversary system. The prosecutorial mentality in general is to find fault and fix blame. State Bar prosecutors sometimes become seemingly petty and mean-spirited.

It also helps to be polite. We are always surprised by the number of attorneys who think that being abusive to the State Bar investigator, or trashing the credibility of a former client, will somehow convince the State Bar to abandon an investigation. Au contraire, that's the kind of behavior that keeps them interested in you.

Finally, should you face a disciplinary prosecution, it can be mitigation if you consulted disciplinary counsel then fixed a problem you did not previously recognize. We hope you will contact us for representation. But if not, contact one of our colleagues in the defense bar -- either ADDC or APRL. (Back to Top)


Some complaints appear to be minor matters, and sometimes these are handled by a telephone call urging you to do something about the situation.

Many result in a letter labeled an "inquiry," in which you are asked to explain yourself in matters that appear likely to be unfounded complaints. There is a large gray area between the duty to cooperate and the discretion to keep quiet. A minor inconvenience can turn into a never-ending nightmare.

"Never pass up an opportunity to keep your mouth shut."
- Kim Willingham

Although it comes as a surprise to many attorneys, the State Bar often closes complaints after investigation. Everyone has a right to complain. Frequently the State Bar cannot evaluate the validity of the complaint without hearing a response from the attorney, perhaps by securing copies of documents in the attorney's possession.

Due to mandatory bank reporting of NSF or OD checks, self reporting of sanctions, and complaints by opposing parties or counsel, the State Bar has to ask questions. Your answer can often end the matter with a well written explanation.

Due to mandatory bank reporting of NSF or OD checks, self reporting of sanctions, and complaints by opposing parties or counsel, the State Bar has to ask questions. Your answer can often end the matter with a well written explanation.

Tthe State Bar sometimes receives a complaint and closes it without ever contacting the attorney. Thus, if you get a copy of somebody's complaint letter to the State Bar, don't write to the State Bar unless the Bar itself asks for a response.

Unless nobody but yourself opens your mail, screens your e-mail, and does your filing, then your staff and colleagues are likely to suspect or know of the State Bar inquiry. It is often better to let them know about it in general terms than it is to try to keep it quiet. Otherwise, they will speculate how much trouble you're in - and do it behind your back. (Back to Top)


In the beginning...

You will usually first hear about the State Bar investigation when you get a letter from a State Bar investigator requesting certain information, certain documents, and demanding an explanation of behavior that is all too frequently assumed to be true because some angry client wrote it down.

One of the first decisions we make with our clients is where to draw the line. There is a statutory obligation to cooperate with the State Bar. It is necessary to be careful that you provide relevant information without crossing the line and providing extra information that would raise suspicions about behavior not currently being investigated. And sometimes a busy investigator simply uses the wrong macro.

Sometimes it is advisable, and sometimes it is necessary, to assert privileges. There is no State Bar exception to the attorney client privilege when there is no client complaint.

We assist our clients in preparing the factual statement, selecting documents, and deciding what issues to address. We send a careful advocacy letter that provides interpretations of the facts and specialized legal research. Frequently there is existing case or statutory law that helps define the line between where your conduct is acceptable, to where it is negligent but not disciplinable, to where it is disciplinable. Often you do not know about those cases, or where those lines are.

Typically, State Bar investigators begin looking at conduct without having a clear sense of what Rule, if any, would be violated if you, indeed, did all the alleged conduct. We frequently represent people who have not violated any Rule, but we have to explain why in a letter brief that goes to the State Bar. In some complicated areas of the law it is sometimes necessary to provide a lengthy brief to the staff attorney, in order to show that certain conduct was proper, privileged, or otherwise not in violation of the rules. In situations such as this, our understanding of ethics law and your understanding of the substantive law in your own field have to be put together for the proper explanation to the State Bar.

In the middle...

Probably the most frustrating aspect of a State Bar investigation is the hurry up and wait syndrome. Investigators demand answers on tight time lines, then we may hear nothing for months. Often they gather statements and documents, forward them to staff attorneys, who kick them back for more investigation. In this system, no news is, well, no news. Your case is in the hands of overworked bureaucrats with few real time deadlines. Serious theft cases go to the top of the pile; less serious cases can collect dust. Easy cases move faster than difficult ones.

In the end...

Most investigations close with no adverse action. But a certain percentage of cases are headed towards formal, disciplinary prosecution. At this point, the State Bar equivalent of plea-bargaining may be indicated. (Back to Top)


The investigator reports to a staff attorney who, in turn, asks the managing attorneys for consent to close the case or go forward. If they decide to go forward, they will outline the likely charges. We get our first look at their file. The evidence disclosure can let us see what the State Bar has missed. Often, no new documents have been obtained since the original client complaint and your response. Or a staff attorney has read the case summary without reading the source documents. In some cases, we point them to witnesses or documents they missed. We usually have a frank talk with the prosecuting attorney. A face-to-face talk gets rid of misconceptions -- one way or another. We have certainly persuaded some prosecutors to close down a case on the eve of filing. Other times, they may show us that indeed they understand exactly what Rule you violated.

Sometimes it is possible to enter into an ALD, (an Agreement in Lieu of Disciplinary prosecution). An ALD is the State Bar equivalent of diversion, in which you acknowledge the conduct, acknowledge that it was a violation of the Rules, and agree to certain remedial conduct. In turn, the State Bar agrees not to prosecute you for the offense.

It is not always possible to obtain a dismissal or an ALD. The State Bar is often willing to engage in a settlement at this stage. This is the equivalent of plea-bargaining. You agree to a certain level of discipline and we negotiate the terms of a State Bar stipulation. The advantage to a prefiling stipulation is the same as the advantage to settling any kind of civil suit, or entering into a criminal plea bargain: That is, you get a certain result. There is a limit to your cost and exposure, and you avoid about one or two years of expensive and stressful litigation.

"The role of a State Bar prosecutor is to go onto the litigation battlefield and shoot the wounded attorneys."
- Jerome Fishkin

The State Bar Court will hold a pre filing settlement conference on request. It's called the ENEC [Early Neutral Evaluation Conference]. The prosecutor lodges a draft of the formal charges, and we submit our position paper. Both sides meet with a State Bar Court Judge, who gives us some sort of reading of what the case looks like. Again, it is quite helpful to be represented by somebody who has appeared before these Judges and has a sense of where cases can go -- and where they can't go, too.

In today’s atmosphere, however, it can be easier to get a better result after trial than in negotiations with prosecutors, most of whom have no discretion other than to carry out instructions from the management team.

Under the Rules of Court, an attorney can resign "with charges pending." Until a few years ago, any such resignation was routinely accepted. Recently, the Supreme Court has rejected a large number of them and the State Bar has begun opposing them. If you decide you don’t want to fight for your license, we can recommend some practical steps to take in view of this new development. (Back to Top)


Formal State Bar proceedings begin with the filing of a Notice of Disciplinary Charges (NDC) in the State Bar Court. You are served by certified mail; personal service is not necessary. There is no constitutional right to refuse to answer State Bar charges (not to be confused with your right to assert whatever statutory privileges you do have). You are required to file a specific, although unverified, Answer. Your Answer must specifically indicate which of the allegations you acknowledge and which you contest. Or, you may plead nolo contendere.

The NDC and Answer are posted on your Membership Records listing on the State Bar's website. Thus, it is available to anyone who looks you up. Also, the State Bar sends copies of all NDC's to the media. Depending upon your location, the charges themselves, and even the size of your community, you may be the subject of some news stories, which nowadays live for years on the internet. Often, the best response is no response, but sometimes it is necessary for your personal situation to have some counter publicity. Also, it is often necessary to be pro-active and notify existing clients, so they don't hear about it first from some other source.

State Bar rules attempt to avoid motion practice over the content of the NDC. Challenges to the jurisdiction of the State Bar have never been successful, and they tend to irritate the Judges who have the discretion to decide what level of discipline is appropriate if you're found culpable of an offense.

The State Bar Court rules are nearly identical to those in the Administrative Procedures Act (APA). Thus, there are requirements for immediate swapping of documents on demand, a continuing duty to update the swap, and an exclusionary rule for failure to do so. Court approval or mutual consent is now needed for any other discovery. The court is generally reluctant to permit additional discovery without a very clear and compelling reason.

Cases are sent to a settlement Judge shortly before trial. However, we generally are in front of the ENEC judge and opposed by the same prosecutor. Few cases settle at this stage, but at least we can get more clarity on the prosecutor’s case and the settlement judge’s second opinion.

Before the trial ever starts, a formal pretrial statement will be filed, similar to that filed in Federal courts. Each side must state its position on the issues in the case and each side has to disclose its proposed exhibits. The Court has discretion to exclude those exhibits which are not disclosed. If there are legal defenses, the pretrial statement is about the last time they can be raised. State Bar Court Judges are thoroughly prepared for the legal arguments that are made at trial.

Judges are truly independent of the prosecutors: they are appointed by the Supreme Court and other specified Constitutional Officers. Those Judges are ready for trial and impatient with bogus arguments from either side. They actually read the case law, and they do independent research before we walk into the courtroom. They sit without a jury. The prosecution must prove its case by clear and convincing evidence.

State Bar rules of evidence are pretty broad. After all, a State Bar Judge’s decision can be reviewed de novo by the Review Department and the Supreme Court. However, the Hearing Judge's rulings on credibility are nearly impossible to overturn. Thus, the most important part of the trial will turn on you, the respondent attorney, and how you appear to a Judge who spends every day listening to attorneys explain their conduct.

The State Bar’s rules of evidence now establish two levels of evidence. Direct evidence, as in Superior Court, is required to prove a case. However, hearsay can be used to supplement and explain direct evidence. The use of hearsay creates opportunities for the prepared advocate and frustrations for the unprepared attorney.

According to the State Bar management in 2009, prosecutors appealed one third of all cases to the Review Department. In 2012, the Supreme Court returned dozens of cases to the State Bar Court for further consideration. The perception is that levels of discipline have risen, though there is no statistical study to support that theory. Both the Review Department and the Supreme Court review cases de novo but based on the trial record. Thus, your trial record should be meticulous. It will be scrutinized once, perhaps twice, by judges on review.

If you are found culpable of one or more disciplinary offenses, the Judge will impose a reproval or recommend probation, suspension, or disbarment. The presumptive level of discipline begins with State Bar disciplinary standards, which are published in the State Bar Rules of Procedure. Sometimes we advise you to admit culpability, stipulate to the facts, or plead nolo, in order to concentrate on lowering the level of discipline. In any event, we put on a full-scale mitigation case, including character witnesses, evidence of pro bono and community work, evidence of restitution, rehabilitation, and repentance.

The State Bar Judge's decision is posted on your membership listing. The NDC and Answer are removed. If you are exonerated, all reference to the case will be removed from your membership records site. However, the court docket will remain on the Internet site of the State Bar Court.

A reproval takes effect at once. Other levels of discipline do not take effect until the Supreme Court acts. At the current time, any discipline remains on your membership records site for the rest of your life. The State Bar court docket, and the Supreme Court docket, remain forever. (Back to Top)


Either side may appeal the Hearing Department decision to the Review Department of the State Bar Court. The Review Department consists of three Judges who review the record de novo. The Review Department is required to give great weight to the credibility findings of fact of the Hearing Judge. They rarely permit augmentation of the record. De novo review means that all issues are open - either side can lose on appeal what it won at trial.

Filing for Review puts the Hearing Department Decision on hold. However, the State Bar leaves that Hearing Department Decision on your Membership Records listing. The Review Department will give the record a high level of scrutiny. If there is something the Hearing Judge overlooked, expect the Review Department to find it. The Review Department is entitled to reweigh the evidence, come up with new conclusions of law, and is not otherwise bound by the fact-finding or legal conclusions of the Hearing Judge. While the Review Department has discretion to accept new evidence, it rarely does. Therefore, the Review Department case is usually done on the record developed at trial. Oral argument is detailed, record oriented and, once again, these Judges are very knowledgeable in the applicable law.

After the case is submitted, the Review Department will issue a written opinion which, in turn, may be published in the California State Bar Court Reporter. Published decisions of the Review Department are binding precedent upon the State Bar Court trial Judges. The Reporter is gradually becoming a commonly cited source of ethics law.

Whether your case is "published" or "not for publication" in the State Bar Court Reporter, the Review Department Decision is posted on your membership record listing on the website. In addition, the State Bar Court now posts the unpublished opinions on its website. (Back to Top)


Cases recommending probation, suspension, or disbarment go to the Supreme Court. If nobody has appealed a Hearing Department decision, it goes directly to the Supreme Court. If either side appealed the Hearing Department decision, then the case does not go to the Supreme Court until the Review Department has finished it.

Unless one side or the other appeals, then there is no briefing or argument at the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court reviews the record, then takes action. In the overwhelming number of cases, the Supreme Court approves the recommendation of the State Bar Court. In such a case, the Supreme Court action will usually occur about 60-70 days after receipt of the record from the State Bar Court.

The Supreme Court may review a case on its own accord, or by granting a discretionary order of review on request of either party. If the Supreme Court decides to review a case, testimonial facts found by the Hearing Judge get great weight, as do discipline recommendations of the Review Department. But, once again it is a de novo review. While the Supreme Court has the discretion to accept new evidence, it rarely does.

The Supreme Court order takes effect thirty days after it is filed. Depending on the level of discipline, you may have to report the outcome to clients, opposing counsel and courts. From the day you were first asked to explain yourself, to the effective date of the Supreme Court order, about 12 to 30 months has transpired. (Back to Top)


The lowest level of discipline is a private reproval. If the private reproval occurs after the filing of formal State Bar charges, it is a matter of public record. Otherwise it is not a public record item; however, the complainant is told about it.

The next highest level of discipline is a public reproval. It is communicated in one of the State Bar's regular press releases throughout California. Reprovals are imposed by the State Bar Court. Other forms of discipline do not take effect until the Supreme Court acts.

The next level of discipline is probation with stayed, but not actual, suspension. For more serious cases, the State Bar Court can recommend to the California Supreme Court that an attorney be actually suspended. If there is a period of suspension, customarily the minimum period is thirty days and the customary maximum period is three years.

If you are suspended for less than 90 days, there is no automatic requirement that the suspension be reported to clients, courts, or opposing counsel. If you are suspended for a period of two years or more, you will be required to prove to the State Bar that you are ready to resume the practice of law before your suspension will be lifted.

If you are suspended for any period of time, the State Bar will put you on probation. You may have conditions specific to your case, such as restitution, trust account reports, or alcohol programs. Reports are due quarterly. Every disciplined attorney is expected to attend one day of State Bar Ethics School, plus take, and pass, the Multi-State Professional Responsibility Exam (MPRE).

Some attorneys will choose to resign rather than face State Bar prosecution. Others will lose a contested case and will be disbarred. If you resign or you are disbarred, there are certain requirements you must meet in order to comply with the California Rules of Court. Failure to do so can result in follow up contempt proceedings.

There is no present way to expunge your disciplinary record. Our professional organization, ADDC (Association of Discipline Defense Counsel) prepared an expungement proposal for presentation to the California Supreme Court. The State Bar Board of Governors refused to circulate it for public comment.
(Back to Top)


Virtually all Federal Courts require an Attorney to report discipline in another jurisdiction. Very often the federal courts impose reciprocal discipline, and usually you want to take the hits all at once. The actual practice in Federal court bears little resemblance to their published rules, and the formality varies widely by Court.

The same principle applies to Bar memberships in Federal agencies. Each has its own rules and procedures; therefore, it is necessary to let us know to which of these other Bars you are admitted, and whether you or we will handle the reciprocal disciplinary case. Most states require that you self report discipline from another jurisdiction. (Back to Top)


By legislative mandate, the State Bar has set up the Lawyer Assistance Program (LAP) - a program for attorneys who have alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. You can contact the program directly at 866.436.6644, or at [email protected] LAP is especially good for attorneys who have serious problems and are willing to invest the years and funds it takes to deal with them.

If you are accepted by LAP, you may qualify for the Alternative Discipline Program (ADP) in the State Bar Court. Through that program you may get a better discipline result if you successfully complete both LAP and ADP. However, the State Bar prosecutors have embarked on an overt policy of opposing requests for ADP and an aggressive program of appealing successful motions. The State Bar has also reduced funding for LAP.

Apart from the discipline system, many attorneys have found help through The Other Bar. Call them at 800.222.0767. You can obtain mitigation credit for participation, but you can't get into the ADP. The Other Bar is a great resource for the attorney who is ready to give up drugs or alcohol, and who is ready to work with other similarly affected attorneys in the process. Go to a meeting; you may be surprised who you know there. (Back to Top)


The State Bar does not ignore all misdemeanors.
Not all felonies result in disbarment.

If you are arrested, you should ask your criminal defense attorney to consult with disciplinary counsel at once. The State Bar outcome can depend on what code section you plead to or are convicted under. There are State Bar reporting requirements as a criminal case progresses. If you plea bargain, the exact crime you plead to can have dramatically different disciplinary consequences, even on the same facts.

Most criminal convictions will result in a State Bar prosecution. Thus, there are no investigations as spelled out above in §§ IV - VI. You receive a "Notice of Hearing" to begin the case, and you are required to file a written response. All felonies, and most misdemeanors, result in a prosecution.

When an attorney is convicted of a crime, or is found guilty, or pleads nolo or guilty, the State Bar begins a disciplinary prosecution under Bus & Prof 6102. The attorney has a duty to report a felony conviction. If the attorney is convicted of a felony, the attorney is placed under interim suspension pending outcome of the State Bar process, §6102(a).

If an attorney is convicted of a misdemeanor, or is found guilty, or pleads guilty or nolo, there may be a duty to report under §6068(o)(5). There may be an interim suspension. But in almost all misdemeanor cases, and after all felonies, there is a prosecution.

Attorneys are generally required to report criminal convictions to Federal Courts and Federal Agencies. While those agencies may begin their own disciplinary proceedings, they commonly will wait until the State Bar discipline process is complete before doing so.

All felony convictions result in an interim suspension. The first State Bar issue is whether the elements of the crime itself constitute moral turpitude per se. If so, the felony conviction results in summary disbarment. A misdemeanor of moral turpitude per se results in an interim suspension pending outcome of the State Bar Court process.

If the crime is not moral turpitude per se, the State Bar Court conducts an inquiry on whether the facts and circumstances surrounding the crime constitute moral turpitude or whether the conduct otherwise constitutes Other Misconduct Warranting Discipline (OMWD), In Re Kelley (1990) 52 Cal 3rd 487.

We can frequently let you know ahead of time whether or not a conviction of a particular crime will be considered moral turpitude per se. Advance knowledge can help guide you in a plea bargain, when the selection of the crime may materially affect the disciplinary process. Similarly, we can frequently let you know what sort of discipline has been imposed on attorneys who were convicted of such violations previously. This information is often in addition to what you can find in reported cases.

The opening of a State Bar Court case based on the conviction does not necessarily mean that any disbarment will result. Felonies inevitably result in discipline; misdemeanors are all over the map.

All disciplinary cases carry the theoretical threat of anything from a private reproval to disbarment. The State Bar case after a criminal plea or conviction begins as a public disciplinary prosecution in the State Bar Court. So, take it seriously from the moment of your arrest. The sooner you contact defense counsel, the better chance you have of keeping your license. Go back to § VII of this essay.(Back to Top)


Disciplinary cases are adversarial matters in which your career is at stake. Experienced defense attorneys know the ropes. If you've never read the State Bar Court Reporter, or don't have a copy of the California Compendium on Professional Responsibility, or don’t know where to find the disciplinary standards, you certainly don't want to show off your amateur status to a career prosecutor, nor submit your career to a judge whose full time job is judging attorneys.

You don't like to deal with angry, self-righteous, pro per adversaries who don't understand how the legal system works. Neither do State Bar employees like to deal with angry, self righteous, pro per attorneys who don't understand how the State Bar system works. Most State Bar investigators and prosecutors prefer that you be represented. Others will try to take advantage of the amateur. Counsel like us tends to be efficient and dispassionate; we don't take it personally. Experienced State Bar defense counsel will not over explain and fill up the State Bar file with items that may be interesting to you but are irrelevant to the State Bar inquiry.

We are members of ADDC, a statewide bar association of attorneys who specialize in discipline defense. We are also members of APRL, a national bar association of attorneys who specialize in legal malpractice and attorney discipline. We participate actively on listservs in both groups. We are up to date on the law, the trends, and what is actually happening today when prosecutors and defenders meet to resolve cases. We maintain collegial, professional relationships with prosecutors and investigators, and we keep track of what is happening at the State Bar. We cannot guarantee a happy ending. We can promise you representation that is practical, efficient, and knowledgeable. (Back to Top)